Thursday, October 17, 2019

Critically Analyse the Effectiveness of the Strategies Utilised in the Essay

Critically Analyse the Effectiveness of the Strategies Utilised in the US and UK to tackle the Purported Rise in Knife or Gun Crime - Essay Example Many have warned that storing of firearms in homes would increase the cause of violent deaths (Some facts about guns. 2007). Even though many laws were framed by the authorities in US to curtail the carrying and possession of fire arms, it did not decrease the death rate due to firearms. In 2008 the US Supreme Court made a historic decision that ratified the decision by the district to curtail the rights of citizens to carry firearms in the city. The supreme court opinioned that action by the district is a clear violation of denying individual rights and freedom for carrying firearms. Persons who advocated against ban of carrying firearms put forward statistics related to crime and deaths in the US. In 1993, there were over one million firearm related crimes in the country. In 2005, it declined to 500000 incidents. They also pointed that firearms are not the only reason for violent deaths in the US. However records of the FBI clearly suggest that many crimes including homicides are related to firearms (Tartar.A 2008). In UK increase in suicides was due to use of firearms at home. To prevent crimes related to possession of firearms, UK passed two firearms amendment acts of 1997. Due to the passing of the act, there was a decrease of possession of handguns in Britain. Many handguns were handed over to the police by the individuals (Some facts about guns. 2007). It is estimated that American citizens uses firearms for at least 764000 times in a year to defend themselves. In 1976, Washington DC enacted a virtual ban on handguns. During 1976 and 1991, Washington DC’s homicide rates grew 200 % and the US rate grew by only 12%.The US government has passed the right to carry laws which requires the law enforcement agencies to issue permits to handguns to all applicants who are qualified. Licenses are issued considering age, clean criminal record, completion of firearms safety course etc. In 1986, nine states in the US had right to carry laws. In

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Constructed Textiles for Fashion Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Constructed Textiles for Fashion - Coursework Example From this paper it is clear that  there are numerous innovations   those has been made in the interior decorations such as   carpet designing, curtains designing as well as several other clothing fields by utilizing textiles designing. Currently, textile-designing clothing is gaining huge popularity among people throughout the world. Besides, textile designing is noted as one of the most important job role for a fashion designer, as it require higher level of creativity as well as specialist skills.This essay discusses that  with the advent of globalization in business domain, it has also influenced fashion industry to adopt various changes in the fashion line. People belonging to different age groups have varied and dynamic preferences regarding apparels, which need to be satisfied by the modern fashion industry. Besides, the recent changes in the clothing style have also influenced the fashion industry to apply new techniques for meeting the current requirements of designer clothes. Therefore, in the global retail industry, the demands for creative designer has also been raising in a rapid manner.  Haider Ackermann is a well-known fashion designer. Haider Ackermann is a specialist designer, who designs clothing considering the recent market demands of ready-to wear cloths. Recently, the increasing demand of the creative clothing has influenced Ackermann to launch a new trend of creative designing.

Critically Analyse the Effectiveness of the Strategies Utilised in the Essay

Critically Analyse the Effectiveness of the Strategies Utilised in the US and UK to tackle the Purported Rise in Knife or Gun Crime - Essay Example Many have warned that storing of firearms in homes would increase the cause of violent deaths (Some facts about guns. 2007). Even though many laws were framed by the authorities in US to curtail the carrying and possession of fire arms, it did not decrease the death rate due to firearms. In 2008 the US Supreme Court made a historic decision that ratified the decision by the district to curtail the rights of citizens to carry firearms in the city. The supreme court opinioned that action by the district is a clear violation of denying individual rights and freedom for carrying firearms. Persons who advocated against ban of carrying firearms put forward statistics related to crime and deaths in the US. In 1993, there were over one million firearm related crimes in the country. In 2005, it declined to 500000 incidents. They also pointed that firearms are not the only reason for violent deaths in the US. However records of the FBI clearly suggest that many crimes including homicides are related to firearms (Tartar.A 2008). In UK increase in suicides was due to use of firearms at home. To prevent crimes related to possession of firearms, UK passed two firearms amendment acts of 1997. Due to the passing of the act, there was a decrease of possession of handguns in Britain. Many handguns were handed over to the police by the individuals (Some facts about guns. 2007). It is estimated that American citizens uses firearms for at least 764000 times in a year to defend themselves. In 1976, Washington DC enacted a virtual ban on handguns. During 1976 and 1991, Washington DC’s homicide rates grew 200 % and the US rate grew by only 12%.The US government has passed the right to carry laws which requires the law enforcement agencies to issue permits to handguns to all applicants who are qualified. Licenses are issued considering age, clean criminal record, completion of firearms safety course etc. In 1986, nine states in the US had right to carry laws. In

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Limitations of Intelligence assessment Essay Example for Free

Limitations of Intelligence assessment Essay Intelligence is defined as the ability for abstract thinking . It is the ability of an individual to act in a purposeful manner and think rationally as well as interact with the environment in an effective way. Some have also said that intelligence is whatever the intelligence tests assess which is usually dependent on the preferences of the test developer. According to Piaget, Intelligence is an equilibrium state towards which successive adaptatations of cognitive and sensorimotor patterns as well as accomodatory and assimilatory interactions between organism and environment tend towards (Flynn, 2007). Limitations of Intelligence assessment An intelligence assessment test does not show what an individual can do in specific areas and does not assess specific conditions such as dyslexia. A person with dyslexia may still have high intelligence quotient. An intelligence quotient score can be deceptive in that people with same IQ can have very different intellectual abilities. Furthermore, an IQ test does not measure raw intelligence or any absolute, inherent or innate ability. The IQ test is just a relative index of intelligence assessment which only compares one person’s performance with another of his own age (Flynn, 2007). Strengths of Intelligence assessment The strength lies in its purpose which can be educational, medical, research and vocational. In terms of vocation, IQ tests are used for vocational guidance as different vocations call for different aptitudes . In research IQ test are used to study mental growth as mental ability develop sequentially from birth onwards and so intelligence assessment can be used to see direction of individual and group curve it is also used in research to indicate the extent of differences of IQs among children of same calendar age and this will imply the need to provide materials at the different levels of difficulty. In medicine, IQ assessment is used to characterize the degree of mental retardation so as to evolve adequate management strategies. In education, it is used to identify gifted children and for homogenous grouping of children for educational effectiveness.

Monday, October 14, 2019

English: The Official Language?

English: The Official Language? For better or for worse, like it or not, English is in effect the official language of the planet. It is the most commonly used language of international commerce, politics, science, diplomacy, and the most commonly used language on the Internet. It is a lingua franca, or vehicular language, i.e. a language spoken and utilized outside of the country or countries of its origin, as opposed to a vernacular language, i.e. a language spoken within and amongst native speakers in the country of origin. English, like other lingua franca of the past, is often used as a second language to effect common communication for a specific purpose (such as diplomacy) between people for whom the lingua franca is not their first language. For example, French was once the lingua franca of diplomacy up until around World War I, only to be supplanted by English; scientists themselves declared English to be their lingua franca in a 1989 article in The Scientist magazine bluntly entitled The English Language: The Lingua Franca Of International Science. One may view the domination and global use of English as linguistic and cultural imperialism, and indeed we shall explore this notion further, but the simple fact is that the situation is unlikely to change any time soon. It is everywhere. Some 380 million people speak it as their first language and perhaps two-thirds as many again as their second. A billion are learning it, about a third of the worlds population are in some sense exposed to it and by 2050, it is predicted, half the world will be more or less proficient in it. (The Economist, 2001). It is thus in the best interest of citizens and governments of any nations that wish to participate on the global stage economically, politically, scientifically, etc., to embark upon official programs to ensure that people have the opportunity to learn English; in fact, it may be argued that the teaching of English should be mandatory in such nations. While there are cultural drawbacks to the institutionalized teaching of English in non-ENL countries, the benefits seem to outweigh the drawbacks, and we shall explore both as well. To understand the merits of education in English, as well as its drawbacks and the practical requirements therein, we must first understand something of the merits of the English language itself, the historical circumstances and cultures that spawned it, and why it continues to be durable and vital as a universal language. The global influence and power of the British Empire, and then subsequently the United States as the British Empires scope gradually eroded, is primarily responsible for the primacy of English as a de facto official international language. Latin, once the lingua franca for most of Europe, was gradually supplanted in the 17th and 18th century as global exploration and colonization; for a time, scholars and clerics who regularly traveled across the boundaries of national languages continued to use Latin and their lingua franca. But as knowledge of Latin declined and the rise of merchant and professional classes produced travelers unschooled in Latin,people sought alternative means of international communications. (Graddol,2000, p. 6) The victory of the Allies in World War II cannot be underestimated in terms of representing a huge step in cementing the destiny of English as the language eventually destined to be the universal language of the globe. The only two potential rivals at the time were French, mostly due to historical inertia, and German, mostly due to the astonishing rise to military and economic power of Nazi Germany in the 1920s and 1930s. Had the U.S. not lent its economic and military might to defeat the Germans and the Japanese, English might be a quaint relic of the planets short-lived experiment in democracy. Had Hitler won World War II and had the USA been reduced to a confederation banana republics, we would probably today use German as a universal vehicular language, and Japanese electronic firms would advertise their products in Hong Kong airport duty-free shops in German. (Eco, 1995, p. 331) Unlike almost every other major nation that fought in World War II, the United States emerged with its economy not only intact, but also thriving. It was therefore no surprise that the United States took the lead in forming and administering institutions to aid the reconstruction and reintegration of Europe, Japan, and many other regions of the world. In short order, English-speaking nations were also exporting their culture, not simply their goods and goodwill. The ongoing hegemony that the United States and Britain enjoy in terms of cultural communications film, television, books, music, etc., helps perpetuate the influence and staying power of English as an official language. Even such cultural communications that are translated into the native languages of individual countries are not immune to the Englishness of the communications, i.e., the distinctly American and/or British cultural elements that inform the language of the communications and therefore necessarily survive any competent translation and are inculcated into the minds of the listener/viewer/reader. In ways too intricate, too diverse for socio-linguistics to formulate precisely, English and American-English seem to embody for men and women throughout the world -and particularly for the young the feel of hope, of material advance, of scientific and empirical procedures. The entire world-image of mass consumption, of international exchange, of the popular arts, of generational conflict, of technocracy, is permeated by American-English and English citations and speech habits. (Steiner, 1975, p. 469) Other than the cultural, military, and political hegemony of the British Empire and of the United States, what might account for the staying power of English as a lingua franca? From a linguistic perspective, English is hardly the most sensible choice for a quasi-official global language. English, simply put, is not the most efficient and consistent language. English is an irregular and fractured language comprised of influences from Latin and Celtic, and later Scandinavian and Norman French tongues. Its syntax, construction, verb conjugation,spelling, and other grammatical constructions, etc., are riddled with maddening inconsistencies that at times befuddle even native speakers, to say nothing ofthose who struggle for years to master it as a second language. English lacks the simplicity and consistency of the Romance languages to the extent that it varies from its Latin and French influences, though it is certainly easier to learn and utilize than some Asian tongues. However, these same elements that make English a flawed language are also believed by many linguists to be strengths that assist in the durability and adaptability of English; it has historically adapted to and incorporated language influences with ease that it has encountered from around the globe. English has always been an evolving language and language contact has been an important driver of change Some analysts see this hybridity and permeability of English as defining features, allowing it to expand quickly into new domains and explaining in part its success as a world language. (Graddol, 2000, p. 6) As English owes its existence to the fact that it absorbs, not rejects new linguistic and cultural influences, its inherently hybridized nature makes it all the easier for English to assimilate characteristics of other cultures and languages, instead of reject them or demand they conform to some sort of rigid structure. As the rules of English are a bit fast and loose, English is well-suited to evolve on the fly. There are a variety of challenges facing both those who wish to learn English as a second language and those who wish to teach it. Some of these challenges are cultural, some are practical, but the utilization of English by non-native speakers in non-ENL nations is never as simple a matter as it might seem. Culturally speaking, some aspiring English speakers may feel pressure from the more traditional and/or conservative members of their own cultures to resist what they may label as American cultural imperialism, the decadent influence of consumer capitalist values from the West that are transmitted through theEnglish language. To embrace these values at the expense of ones own language and culture is frowned upon in many conservative cultures, for example, particularlyin fundamentalist Muslim cultures which have suffered from seriously strained relations with the United States in the past six to ten years. Often, proficiency in one or more indigenous or native tongues will co-exist, mingle, and/or exist in hierarchal forms of usage with English. The acquisition of English skills does not necessarily lead to the supplanting or replacement of the native tongue with English; the choice of which language to speak is often context- and audience-dependent. For example, in some cases speakers will employ code-switching, in which two participants in a conversation, who know both English and a local vernacular language, will switch back and forth between the two tongues as a means of negotiating and navigating their relationship, in some cases even alternating back and forth between languages within the same sentence. Graddol (2000) outlines some fascinating examples, including a situation in which a young job seeker enters an office in Nairobi, Kenya, seeking employment. The vernacular language in question is Swahili; the young man commences his job inquiry with the owner of the establishment by speaking in English. The Kenyan manager of the office, however, insists on using Swahili, thus denying the young mans negotiation of the higher status associated with English. (Myers-Scotton, 1989, p. 339) Their conversation goes as follows: Young Man: Mr Muchuki has sent me to you about the job you put in the paper. Manager: Uitumabarua ya application? [Did you send a letter of application?] Young Man: Yes,I did. But he asked me to come to see you today. Manager: Ikiwaulituma barua, nenda ungojee majibu. Tutakuita ufike kwa interviewsiku itakapofika. [If youve written a letter, then go and wait for a response.We will call you for an interview when the letter arrives.] (pause) Leo sina lasuma kuliko hayo. [Today I havent anything elseto say.] Young man: Asante.Nitangoja majibu. [Thank you. I will wait for the response.] (Graddol, 2000,p. 13) The managerasserts his authority as both manager and adult in a position that commandsrespect, and he utilizes his insistence on the vernacular tongue to indirectlycommunicate this authority and demand for respect from the young man. Theyoung man is shrewd enough a native speaker of Swahili to grasp the subtext ofthe exchange, which is in essence a command to show proper deference and notwalk into a shop trying to exploit the connection with a mutual Kenyan friendby speaking English. It is not that the manager does not speak English; hedoes, but he insists on a certain element of cultural integrity by insisting onSwahili. The young man picks up on this, and therefore switches to Swahili tobid the manager farewell and tacitly submits to the shopkeepers authority byconforming to his wishes. Had the young man entered the office and spokenSwahili, he might have been granted an interview on the spot, though it ispossible the boy meant no disrespect and in fact wished to display hiseducati on by speaking English. In any case, this example shows thefascinating, multi-layered cultural and personal interchanges that go on duringcode-switching. (Note also that the manager chooses to use the English termsfor interview and application, perhaps because there is no directequivalent in Swahili, or perhaps to illustrate his own ability with English asa point of both pride and warning.) As further examplethat the finding of linguistic common ground is not the cure-all forcommunications difficulties, we now turn to the topic of how speakers interactwhen they share only one language in common, i.e., English, instead of sharingin common speaking ability in both English and their own native, vernacularlanguage. Graddol (2000) provides us with another scenario from the studies ofFirth (1996), in which international phone calls between Dutch and Syrian goodstraders were analyzed to see how the respective parties interacted in English.In some cases, where one speaker is less proficient than the other, the formerwill employ a conversational strategy termed let it pass, in which the lessproficient speaker will mask his lack of understanding of what is being said bythe other by delaying a request for clarification, in hopes that what the firstspeaker said will become understood as the conversation continues. Onehumorous exchange went as follows, in which a Dane (D) and Syrian (S) discussan order of cheese that had gone awry. S: So I told himnot to send the cheese after the blowing in the customs. We dont want theorder after the cheese is blowing. D: I see, yes. S: So I dontknow what we can do with the order now. What do you think we should do withall this blowing, Mr Hansen? D: Im not uh(pause) Blowing? What is this, too big, or what? S: No, thecheese is bad Mr Hansen. It is like fermenting in the customs cool rooms. D: Ah, its goneoff! S: Yes, itsgone off. (Graddol, 2000,p. 13) What this exampledemonstrates is that an entire skill set and mode of sub-communication developsbetween non-native speakers who do not have another frame of reference incommon, i.e., the same vernacular language, further complicating theutilization of English in business and/or commerce situations. There are alsonumerous practical considerations that affect the utilization of English,particularly in teaching it to non-ENL speakers. For example, which versionof English should be taught? Despite the extensive global use of English, itis far from a homogenous language spoken and written in the precisely samemanner in each country. English, as befitting its history, is a language ofmany diverse dialects; British English is different from American English,largely in pronunciation, accent, and certain vocabulary words, and American Englishitself is sub-divisible into any number of different sub-dialects, includingBlack/African-American English, which in its purest form is so unique inaccent, grammar, and slang that it is almost completely unintelligible to manynative English speakers, to say nothing of speakers of English as a secondlanguage (ESL). The numerouschallenges presented by English pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary may alsoserve as a roadblock for both students and teachers. The difficulty ofteaching the ambiguities of unstressed vowels, consonant phenomes, and stresstiming is considerable. English grammar and verb conjugation is extremelyirregular, requiring a considerable amount of rote memorization, instead of theapplication of logical and consistent rules, as found in Romance languages(Spanish and French rely on a consistent set of 13 verb tenses with largelyregular characteristics; English does not.) English vocabulary also requires a large amount of rote memorization, as the innumerable linguistic influences from which English draws its unusually large lexicon make it difficult to extrapolate and create words from basic linguistic structures as a speaker of Spanish can do. For example, the Spanish words pertaining to meat are all rooted in the Latin word carnivorus, whereas in English, they are not: carne = meat; carnicero = butcher; carnicerÃÆ'Â ­a = a store where meat is sold. For Spanish speakers, learning the underlying root word of a concept means the speaker should have little trouble deducing how to say related words; in English, there is no such consistency and therefore the barriers to effective learning and usage are high. On the other hand,there are inherent flaws in other major world languages, for which Englishprovides a natural compensation. One such example is Japanese, an ancient andbeautiful language rich in complexity and the capacity for subtlety and nuanceof expression, but also notorious -for those same reasons for itsinefficiency and lack of clarity when it comes to matters of politics, law,debate, and decision-making. In 1999, one of the most influential Japanesenewspapers, Asahi Shimbun issued a hotly debated call for English to beadopted as the official language of Japan, citing advantages ranging from theobvious greater Japanese ability to participate in science, internationaltrade, politics, etc. to the unusual, i.e., the newspaper asserted that theuse of English would in fact strengthen the usage of Japanese, whose linguisticweaknesses, the paper asserted, played a large part in the inefficiency of thegovernment. Quoting Yoshio Terasawa, a former director of Japans Economic Planning Agency, former member of the House of Councilors, and former president of Nomura Securities U.S. division, the newspaper delivered a stinging indictment of its own native language and recommended the usefulness of English when it came to decision-making in business and government: Japanese is fullof vague expressions, so people rarely talk in terms of black and white and itis very easy to blur responsibility. It is an everyday occurrence forgovernment ministers to spend 10 minutes answering a question in the Diet [theJapanese Parliament] without actually saying anything. But if Diet memberscould put their questions in English, it might be possible to do away with thenon-committal bureaucratic language that is too wishy-washy to translate intoEnglish. People wouldnt be able to fudge the issues any more, and not just inpolitics. (Kinomoto, 1999) The article wenton to remark, with some astonishment, that the expected outcries of culturalimperialism and the imminent demise of the celebrated individuality andindependence of the Japanese culture, were few and far between. The Japanesehave yet to make English their official language, unsurprisingly given theirhistoric national pride, but the open advocacy of the virtues of English usagewas remarkable. In the end, theutilization of English as a lingua franca second language has clear benefits.While the potential obliteration of cultural diversity worldwide, a constantsource of worry and debate, seems valid, one only need look as far as theexample of the Swahili-speaking office manager to see that indigenous speakersare finding ways for English and their own vernacular languages to co-exist,even with a bit of unease. So the challenge becomes not so much about whetheror not English is of neutral or positive benefit; it self-evidently is; butrather how to go about navigating the parallel use of English with otherlanguages across the globe, both augmenting the strengths of and compensatingfor the weaknesses of local cultures and local tongues. BIBLIOGRAPHY/ REFERENCES Fennell, Barbara. A History of English:A Sociolinguistic Approach, Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Garfield, Eugene. The English Language:The Lingua Franca Of International Science, The Scientist Magazine,1989, 3(10):12, 15 May 1989. The Triumph of English: A World Empire byOther Means, The Economist, 20 December 2001. Graddol, David. The Future of English?The British Council, 1997, 2000. Eco, U. The Search for the PerfectLanguage. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1995. Graddol, David, Dick Leith JoanSwann. English : History, Diversity and Change London: Routledge, 1996. FBailer, R. M. Gorlach,(eds.) Englishas a World Language. Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1982. Myers-Scotton, C. Code Switching withEnglish: Types of Switching, Types of Communities, World English, Vol.8, No. 3., pp. 333-46. Kachru, B.. The Alchemy of English.Pergamon Press, 1982. Trudgill, P. J. Hannah. InternationalEnglish: A Guide to Varieties of Standard English, Arnold Publishers, 1982. Kinomoto, Keusuke. Should English Be Madethe Official Language? Asahi Shimbun, 29 August 1999.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

René Magritte :: essays research papers

Renà © Magritte   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Renà © Magritte was born in Belgium on November 21, 1898. His childhood took place in Charlerloi. He was born to poverty and held left-wing political views. Magritte’s mother killed herself when he was only fourteen. He later joined the Communist Party. However, he preferred not to use his art for political causes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Magritte started to create successful oil paintings in the 1920s. This is when Magritte started to come into his own. In 1922, Magritte got married to Georgette Berger. Magritte was inspired by Georgette and she became his model. He also became friendly with Victor Servranckx, who had developed a very geometric-abstract style. This was the beginning of a new direction for Magritte. In 1927 Magritte and Georgette moved to Paris to be closer to where it all happens. He started to take part in the activities of the Surrealists, which became his style of choice for the majority of his life. Magritte began combining words and images in his paintings. These word-pictures were not mere illustrations of an object or a concept. Just the opposite, his work was intended to gently destabilize our mental habits of representation. Magritte elaborated a instructive classification of this type of painting, the simplest which consisted of denying an images through words, or vice v ersa. Magritte shared the Surrealist concept of the power of desire and eroticism to change life and wanted to translate this idea through unconventional images. He continued involving metamorphosis in his work. In Black Magic, a naked woman leaning on a rock gradually merges into the blue sky. The painter was, nevertheless, distrustful of the obvious seduction of beautiful colors. In The Rape he even pushed it to the point of obsession with the features of a woman's face replaced by sexual attributes, such as breasts, a belly button and pubic hair.. In 1940, Magritte was going through a crisis resulting from the German occupation in World War II. Also, at this point Magritte’s financial situation became an issue and his dissatisfaction with his own paintings. From then on, he decided that a feeling of pleasure and an atmosphere of happiness had to predominate over the sense of anxiety. Magritte first thought about changing his iconography and began to paint the leaf-birds, which are seen in two works from 1942, Treasure Island and The Companions of Fear.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Moral And Ethical Dilemmas Essay -- Morals Ethics Essays

Moral and Ethical Dilemmas One of the most difficult trials I face in my life are ethical and moral dilemmas. They can be soul-wrenching and searching experiences that tax my character and cause me to really "put my money where my mouth is." Sometimes I'm quick to see ethical faults in others, but slow to see them in myself. Other times I see all to clearly my mistakes and wonder why I don't measure up. I believe one purpose for this life is to learn to act for ourselves. Learn to see a situation correctly and act righteously. In this paper I wish to discuss many of the thoughts I have had recently on setting a pattern for making ethical decisions throughout my life. I will present many of the traps I have fallen into or observed in others. Everyday I'm faced with decisions of right and wrong, most of which are easily and correctly dealt with. Sometimes however, decisions need to be made that are not easy or clear-cut. They require thought and often prayer. I like to draw on past experience to make comparisons that help give insight to new problems. Many times, however past experiences cannot be related to present problems and can confuse and obscure possibilities. Even the opinions or actions of friends faced with similar dilemmas may not be helpful. Often you feel pressured by piers that say, "it's no big deal", or "you'll understand later". It's important that I understand why a particular action or resolution is correct or incorrect. If I can't or don't it's difficult to feel I've been honest with myself. That for me can be a good measure of ethical behavior, my conscience. The ideal way to deal with difficult questions is to have a foolproof formula. Find steps that will always lead to correct decisions. Unfortunately I do not yet have such a formula and often learn by hard experience right and wrong. Let me start by saying I firmly believe the formula exists, and is to be found in the gospel of Jesus Christ. The only way to live a perfectly ethical and moral life is to be Like Him. There is no other way. The entire world will experiment and try all other forms of self-indulgence and soul searching and will not be one step closer until they begin with His gospel. I heard it said once that "he who picks up one end of a stick, picks up the other end also." No matter how hard you try or want happiness... ... volunteered and submitted. I could compare it to temple attendance or missionary service. We may serve by commandment alone, and reap all the blessing and rewards, or we could look beyond and see the work of saving souls. We could see the absolute need for our service and give our lives for it. I believe with that kind of true motivation we will more easily be able to see right from wrong. We will not seek to satisfy our own needs or wants, but will see others needs along with ours. We could more clearly see the importance of ethical and moral behavior. Whether someone is watching or not is irrelevant and has no part in our decisions. I admit that this in no way will make the decision making process easier; quite the contrary. No longer will decisions be made based on popularity or gain, but on what's right and good. Unfortunately I will still have to learn by experience when the answers are not clear, so I will get burned a few times. But in the process of learning, I can be confident that I am really doing my best and improving always. By refining this formula I will find myself better able to resolve difficult dilemmas and feel good about my decisions.